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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
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Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 07 Mars 2018 07:10
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Background Asthma exacerbations occur frequently despite the regular use of asthma-controller therapies, such as inhaled glucocorticoids. Clinicians commonly increase the doses of inhaled glucocorticoids at early signs of loss of asthma control. However, data on the safety and efficacy of this strategy in children are limited. Methods We studied 254 children, 5 to 11 years of age, who had mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and had had at least one asthma exacerbation treated with systemic glucocorticoids in the previous year.

Children were treated for 48 weeks with maintenance low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids (fluticasone propionate at a dose of 44 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) and were randomly assigned to either continue the same dose (low-dose group) or use a quintupled dose (high-dose group; fluticasone at a dose of 220 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) for 7 days at the early signs of loss of asthma control ("yellow zone"). Treatment was provided in a double-blind fashion. The primary outcome was the rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids.

Results The rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids did not differ significantly between groups (0.48 exacerbations per year in the high-dose group and 0.37 exacerbations per year in the low-dose group; relative rate, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.1; P=0.30). The time to the first exacerbation, the rate of treatment failure, symptom scores, and albuterol use during yellow-zone episodes did not differ significantly between groups. The total glucocorticoid exposure was 16% higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. The difference in linear growth between the high-dose group and the low-dose group was -0.23 cm per year (P=0.06).

Conclusions In children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma treated with daily inhaled glucocorticoids, quintupling the dose at the early signs of loss of asthma control did not reduce the rate of severe asthma exacerbations or improve other asthma outcomes and may be associated with diminished linear growth. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; STICS number, NCT02066129 .).

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Oral rehydration solution (OS-1) as a substitute of intravenous hydration after cisplatin administration in patients with lung cancer: a prospective multicenter trial. Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 07 Mars 2018 07:10
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Background: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral hydration as a substitute for intravenous hydration after cisplatin (CDDP) administration.

Methods: The major eligibility criteria included patients with lung cancer, indications for a CDDP-based regimen at a dose of 60 mg/m2 or higher, an age of between 20 and 74 years and adequate renal function. Antiemetic prophylaxis consisted of an appropriate dose of palonosetron, aprepitant, dexamethasone and magnesium sulfate (8 mEq). Five hundred millilitres of commercially available oral hydration solution (OS-1: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Tokushima, Japan) was used as a substitute for intravenous posthydration. The planned sample size was 46 to reject a proportion of 70% under an expectation of 88% with a power of 90% and an alpha error of 5%.

Results: Between May and November 2013, 31 men and 15 women with a median (range) age of 65 (33-74) years were enrolled from three institutions. Of these, five received adjuvant chemotherapy, 17 received definitive chemoradiotherapy and 24 received chemotherapy for advanced diseases. The median (range) number of chemotherapy cycles was 4 (1-5). After the first cycle of CDDP administration, none of the patients experienced a creatinine elevation of grade 2 or higher, thereby meeting the primary endpoint. Of the 46 patients, 45 (97.8%, 95% CI 88.2 to 99.9) completed the CDDP-based chemotherapy without grade 2 or higher renal dysfunction.

Conclusion: Oral hydration can be used as a safe and convenient substitute for intravenous posthydration for CDDP administration at the standard dose.

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Association Between Vitamin D Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Tunisian Adults' Asthma. Imprimer Envoyer
Mercredi, 07 Mars 2018 07:10
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INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown a strong correlation between the serum vitamin D level and asthma severity and deficits in lung function.
OBJECTIVE: Study the relationship between vitamin D and the severity of asthma by targeting five SNPs of vitamin D metabolism gene pathway in a Tunisian adult asthmatics population.

METHODS: Our case-control study includes 154 adult asthmatic patients and 154 healthy Tunisian subjects. We genotyped many variants in three human genes encoding key components of the vitamin D metabolism, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, GC. The GC gene rs4588 and rs7041 polymorphisms were analysed using the PCR-RFLP method, while rs10741657 and rs12794714 for CYP2R1 gene and rs10877012 of CYP27B1 gene were investigated using TaqMan PCR genotyping techniques.

RESULTS: We found that the presence of at least one copy of the rs12794714 A, allele was associated with lower risk of developing asthma (OR 0.61). Further, the rs12794714 is a protector factor against asthma severity (OR 0.5). However, the presence of rs10877012 TG genotype is a risk factor related to asthma severity (OR 1.89). When we classified the population according to sex, our results showed that rs10877012 TT genotype was a risk factor for women subjects (OR 6.7). Moreover, the expression of TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of asthma in non-smoker patients (OR 7.13). We found a significant lower VD serum levels in asthmatics than controls but no impact of the polymorphisms on VD levels.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that rs12794714 and rs10877012 SNPs were associated with asthma risk.

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