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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Echocardiographic changes with non-invasive ventilation and CPAP in obesity hypoventilation syndrome Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 05 Avril 2018 06:50
Rationale

Despite a significant association between obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and cardiac dysfunction, no randomised trials have assessed the impact of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or CPAP on cardiac structure and function assessed by echocardiography.

Objectives

We performed a secondary analysis of the data from the largest multicentre randomised controlled trial of OHS (Pickwick project, n=221) to determine the comparative efficacy of 2 months of NIV (n=71), CPAP (n=80) and lifestyle modification (control group, n=70) on structural and functional echocardiographic changes.

Methods

Conventional transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms were obtained at baseline and after 2 months. Echocardiographers at each site were blinded to the treatment arms. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis.

Results

At baseline, 55% of patients had pulmonary hypertension and 51% had evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Treatment with NIV, but not CPAP, lowered systolic pulmonary artery pressure (–3.4 mm Hg, 95% CI –5.3 to –1.5; adjusted P=0.025 vs control and P=0.033 vs CPAP). The degree of improvement in systolic pulmonary artery pressure was greater in patients treated with NIV who had pulmonary hypertension at baseline (–6.4 mm Hg, 95% CI –9 to –3.8). Only NIV therapy decreased left ventricular hypertrophy with a significant reduction in left ventricular mass index (–5.7 g/m2; 95% CI –11.0 to –4.4). After adjusted analysis, NIV was superior to control group in improving left ventricular mass index (P=0.015). Only treatment with NIV led to a significant improvement in 6 min walk distance (32 m; 95% CI 19 to 46).

Conclusion

In patients with OHS, medium-term treatment with NIV is more effective than CPAP and lifestyle modification in improving pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and functional outcomes. Long-term studies are needed to confirm these results.

Trial registration number

Pre-results, NCT01405976 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/).

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Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) trial: FeNO levels and childhood asthma Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 17 Mars 2018 06:55
The single-centre double-blind, randomised controlled Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) trial in Newcastle, Australia, compared a treatment algorithm using the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in combination with asthma symptoms (FeNO group) against a treatment algorithm using clinical symptoms only (clinical group) in pregnant asthmatic women (ANZ Clinical Trials Registry, number 12607000561482). The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in asthma exacerbations during pregnancy in the FeNO group.
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Advances in the Approach to the Patient with Food Allergy Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 17 Mars 2018 06:55
Advances in food allergy diagnosis, management, prevention and therapeutic interventions have been significant over the past two decades. Evidence based national and international guidelines have streamlined food allergy diagnosis and management, while paradigm shifting work in primary prevention of peanut allergy has resulted in significant modifications in the approach to early food introduction in infants and toddlers. Innovative investigation of food allergy epidemiology, systems biology, impact, and management has provided important insights.
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