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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Effects of Omalizumab on Rhinovirus Infections, Illnesses, and Exacerbations of Asthma Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 29 Octobre 2017 16:17

Rationale: Allergic inflammation has been linked to increased susceptibility to viral illnesses, but it is unclear whether this association is causal.

Objectives: To test whether omalizumab treatment to reduce IgE would shorten the frequency and duration of rhinovirus (RV) illnesses in children with allergic asthma.

Methods: In the PROSE (Preventative Omalizumab or Step-up Therapy for Severe Fall Exacerbations) study, we examined children with allergic asthma (aged 6–17 yr; n = 478) from low-income census tracts in eight U.S. cities, and we analyzed virology for the groups randomized to treatment with guidelines-based asthma care (n = 89) or add-on omalizumab (n = 259). Weekly nasal mucus samples were analyzed for RVs, and respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations were recorded over a 90-day period during the fall seasons of 2012 or 2013. Adjusted illness rates (illnesses per sample) by treatment arm were calculated using Poisson regression.

Measurements and Main Results: RVs were detected in 97 (57%) of 171 exacerbation samples and 2,150 (36%) of 5,959 nonexacerbation samples (OR, 2.32; P < 0.001). Exacerbations were significantly associated with detection of rhinovirus C (OR, 2.85; P < 0.001) and rhinovirus A (OR, 2.92; P < 0.001), as well as, to a lesser extent, rhinovirus B (OR, 1.98; P = 0.019). Omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infection (11.2 d vs. 12.4 d; P = 0.03) and reduced peak RV shedding by 0.4 log units (95% confidence interval, −0.77 to −0.02; P = 0.04). Finally, omalizumab decreased the frequency of RV illnesses (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.84).

Conclusions: In children with allergic asthma, treatment with omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infections, viral shedding, and the risk of RV illnesses. These findings provide direct evidence that blocking IgE decreases susceptibility to RV infections and illness.

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Combined Impact of Smoking and Early-Life Exposures on Adult Lung Function Trajectories Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 29 Octobre 2017 16:17
Rationale: Both adverse early-life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory, but few studies consider how the impact of early-life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking.

Methods: The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5,362 individuals, followed since enrollment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modeling, we investigated how the relationships between early-life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding, and pollution exposure) and FEV1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60–64 years were influenced by smoking behavior.

Measurements and Main Results: Among 2,172 individuals, there were synergistic interactions of smoking with infant respiratory infection (P = 0.04) and early-life home overcrowding (P = 0.009), for FEV1at 43 years. Within smoker-stratified models, there were FEV1 deficits among ever-smokers associated with infant lower respiratory infection (−108.2 ml; P = 0.001) and home overcrowding (−89.2 ml; P = 0.002), which were not evident among never-smokers (−15.9 ml; P = 0.69 and −13.7 ml; P = 0.70, respectively). FVC modeling, including 1,960 individuals, yielded similar results. FEV1 decline was greater in smokers (P < 0.001), but there was no effect of any early-life exposure on FEV1 decline. Neither smoking nor early-life exposures were associated with FVC decline.

Conclusions: Besides accelerating adult FEV1 decline, cigarette smoking also modifies how early-life exposures impact on both midlife FEV1 and FVC. These findings are consistent with smoking impairing pulmonary development during adolescence or early adulthood, thereby preventing catch-up from earlier acquired deficits.

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Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Workplaces, Including Coffee Processing Facilities Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 29 Octobre 2017 16:17
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