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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 19 Août 2017 07:07

Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Invest Radiol. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Petroulia V, Funke M, Zumstein P, Berezowska S, Ebner L, Geiser T, Torbica N, Heverhagen J, Poellinger A

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lethal chronic lung disease with unclear pathogenesis. Radiological hallmark is the pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia accentuated in peripheral and basal areas with otherwise preserved lung structure. One hypothesis is that alveolar collapse and consequent induration lead to fibrotic transformation of lung tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate normal-appearing tissue during expiration for signs of collapsibility and differences from other diseases or controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed a total of 43 patients (15 IPFs, 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and 15 controls) with nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) in inspiration and expiration, performed for routine clinical workup. Densitometry of visually unaffected lung tissue was conducted in all lung lobes with a region of interest of 15-mm in diameter on soft tissue kernel reconstruction (slice thickness, 1 mm) during inspiration and expiration.
RESULTS: One-factor analysis of variance analysis yielded significant difference in attenuation changes between inspiration and expiration of unaffected lung parenchyma among all subject groups in all lung lobes. For IPF patients, the highest differences in densities were observed in the lower lobes, which is the predominantly affected site of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group, the density remained rather equal in the entire lung.
CONCLUSIONS: High CT attenuation changes between inspiration and expiration in IPF patients might suggest altered lung parenchyma in normal-appearing tissue on CT. Density changes during the respiratory cycle might be explained by alveolar collapse of radiologically unaffected lung tissue possibly preceding fibrosis. These results support the concept of alveolar collapse preceding lung fibrosis in IPF.

PMID: 28817393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Appropriate selection for omalizumab treatment in patients with severe asthma? Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 19 Août 2017 07:07
Related Articles

Appropriate selection for omalizumab treatment in patients with severe asthma?

Eur Clin Respir J. 2017;4(1):1359477

Authors: Nygaard L, Henriksen DP, Madsen H, Davidsen JR

Abstract
Background: Omalizumab improves asthma control in patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma; however, appropriate patient selection is crucial. Information in this field is sparse. Objective: We aimed to estimate whether potential omalizumab candidates were appropriately selected according to guidelines, and the clinical effect of omalizumab treatment over time. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study on adult patients with asthma treated with omalizumab during 2006-2015 at the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Odense University Hospital (OUH), Denmark. Data were obtained from the Electronic Patient Journal of OUH and Odense Pharmaco-Epidemiological Database. Guideline criteria for omalizumab treatment were used to evaluate the appropriateness of omalizumab candidate selection, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) to assess the clinical effects of omalizumab at weeks 16 and 52 from treatment initiation. Results: During the observation period, 24 patients received omalizumab, but only 10 patients (42%) fulfilled criteria recommended by international guidelines. The main reasons for not fulfilling the criteria were inadequately reduced lung function, insufficient number of exacerbations, and asthma standard therapy below Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) step 4-5. Seventeen and 11 patients completed treatment at weeks 16 and 52, with a statistically significant increase in ACT score of 5.1 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.1-7.2, p = 0.0001] and 7.7 points (95% CI 4.3-11.1, p = 0.0005), respectively. Conclusion: Only 42% of the omalizumab-treated patients were appropriately selected according to current guidelines. Still, as omalizumab showed significant improvement in asthma control over time, it is important to keep this drug in mind as an add-on to asthma therapy in well-selected patients.

PMID: 28815007 [PubMed]

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Biomarkers in inflammometry pediatric asthma: utility in daily clinical practice. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 19 Août 2017 07:07
Related Articles

Biomarkers in inflammometry pediatric asthma: utility in daily clinical practice.

Eur Clin Respir J. 2017;4(1):1356160

Authors: Sánchez-García S, Habernau Mena A, Quirce S

Abstract
Asthma is a common disease in both high and lower income countries that starts early and persists often for life. A correct and accurate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up during childhood are essential for a better understanding of adult asthma and avoiding over- or under-treatment. Th2 inflammation in children with asthma symptoms is usually assessed by measuring with serum total IgE, blood eosinophilia and FeNO levels that may help to predict asthma, particularly in those infants and young children in whom lung function tests are difficult to perform. FeNO measurement, compared to intra-individual levels, may be useful also for ascertaining treatment adherence. Nevertheless, an isolated measurement may be insufficient and only the combination of these markers improves the diagnosis, phenotyping and follow-up of an asthmatic child.

PMID: 28815006 [PubMed]

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