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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

Challenging and emerging pathogens in cystic fibrosis. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 11 Décembre 2010 01:08

Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by chronic inflammation and infection. Patients are predominantly infected by specific pathogens, of which Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most important.

In recent years however there has been an increasing number of reports on potentially emerging and challenging pathogens like Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria, highly prevalent P. aeruginosa clones, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia. Also, a role for viral infections in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease has increasingly been recognised. It is not always clear whether or how these pathogens influence the progression of CF lung disease and how they should be treated. In this review, the epidemiology and clinical impact of these pathogens is discussed.

Furthermore, treatment strategies of these pathogens in a CF setting are reviewed.

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Pulmonary Embolism during Pregnancy: Diagnosis with Lung Scintigraphy or CT Angiography? Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 11 Décembre 2010 01:02

To evaluate the rate of positive, negative, and indeterminate results and the agreement between initial and expert readings for lung scintigraphy and computed tomographic (CT) angiography performed in patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism (PE) during pregnancy.

Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. The authors retrospectively analyzed the images from lung scintigraphy and CT angiography performed in pregnant patients during the past 9 years. Images from 46 CT angiographic examinations performed in 43 patients and 91 of 94 lung scintigraphic examinations were reviewed by experts, whose readings were then compared with the initial reports. For CT angiography, the quality of opacification was graded as good, suboptimal, or poor and intraarterial attenuation was measured.

Results: The rates of positive findings (seven of 43 patients [16%] with CT angiography and 10 of 91 patients [11%] with scintigraphy, P = .36), negative findings (28 of 43 patients [65%] with CT angiography and 64 of 91 patients [70%] with scintigraphy, P = .54), and indeterminate findings (eight of 43 patients [19%] with CT angiography and 17 of 91 patients [19%] with scintigraphy, P = .99) were similar for CT angiography and lung scintigraphy. There were four discrepancies between initial and expert readings for CT angiography (κ = 0.84; confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99) and 14 for lung scintigraphy (κ = 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.87). Opacification was classified as good for only 23 of the 46 CT angiographic examinations (50%). Attenuation values were significantly different among the groups with good, suboptimal, or poor opacification. Alternative diagnoses unsuspected at chest radiography were demonstrated at CT angiography in five of the 43 patients (12%). The mean maternal radiation dose was 0.9 mSv for lung scintigraphy and 7.3 mSv for CT angiography.

Conclusion: Lung scintigraphy and CT angiography have comparable performances for PE diagnosis during pregnancy. Interobserver agreement is better for CT angiography, which also enables alternative diagnosis of unsuspected disease but delivers higher maternal radiation dose. © RSNA, 2010.

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Systematic review: Diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules for venous thromboembolism in elderly. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 11 Décembre 2010 01:01

Physicians committed to the care of elderly patients, are challenged with the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE: deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) due to a higher incidence, co-morbidities masking signs and symptoms and burdening referrals. Clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been developed and implemented for VTE. Yet, until now, no study has evaluated the existing evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of CDRs for VTE in elderly.

Purpose : To assess the effect of increasing age on diagnostic accuracy of CDRs for VTE in elderly.

Data Sources : A computerized systematic search was performed in Medline and Embase from 1950 to 2010. After checking reference lists and field experts, all key journals were hand searched.

Study Selection : After review of 1538 eligible citations, nine articles were included and critically appraised on methodological quality by two reviewers using the QUADAS criteria.

Data Extraction : Data on age subgroups, type of CDRs, sensitivity, specificity, safety, efficiency and the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were extracted. Data Synthesis Although sensitivity and safety of the CDRs for VTE in elderly remained high, the specificity and efficiency decreased substantially in older age groups.

Limitations : A limited number of studies met our inclusion criteria. Possible referral bias due to inclusion of relatively high risk elderly patients.

Conclusions : This diagnostic review demonstrates an increase of prevalence of PE with age and a strong decrease of specificity and efficiency for CDRs of VTE in older patients. Moreover, due to referral bias the decrease in specificity in the elderly may even be underestimated. Although the safety of CDRs for VTE is high, adapting these rules for elderly is much needed to make them more efficient for aged patients.

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