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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Long-acting Beta-agonists in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Current and Future Agents Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 29 Novembre 2010 07:02

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and debilitating symptoms.

For patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, longacting bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; as symptoms progress, guidelines recommend combining bronchodilators from different classes to improve efficacy. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) have been licensed for the treatment of COPD since the late 1990s and include formoterol and salmeterol. They improve lung function, symptoms of breathlessness and exercise limitation, health-related quality of life, and may reduce the rate of exacerbations, although not all patients achieve clinically meaningful improvements in symptoms or health related quality of life. In addition, LABAs have an acceptable safety profile, and are not associated with an increased risk of respiratory mortality, although adverse effects such as palpitations and tremor may limit the dose that can be tolerated...

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Interstitial lung diseases in children. Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 29 Novembre 2010 06:52

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality.

These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs.

The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy.

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Respiratory Viruses, Eosinophilia and Their Roles in Childhood Asthma. Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 28 Novembre 2010 12:03

With the advent of highly sensitive and specific screening of respiratory specimens for viruses, new viruses are discovered, adding to the growing list of those associated with wheezing illness and asthma exacerbations. It is not known whether early childhood infections with these viruses cause asthma, and, if so, what exactly are the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind its development.

The current consensus is that respiratory viral infection works together with allergy to produce the immune and physiologic conditions necessary for asthma diasthesis. One link between viruses and asthma may be the eosinophil, a cell that plays a prominent role in asthma and allergy, but can also be found in the body in response to viral infection. In turn, the eosinophil and its associated products may be novel therapeutic targets, or at the very least, used to elucidate the complex pathophysiologic pathways of asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Together or separately, they can be used for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring.

Not only symptoms, but also the underlying disease mechanisms must be taken into consideration for the optimal care of a patient.

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