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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

Repeat mediastinoscopy in all its indications: experience with 96 patients and 101 procedures. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 07 Décembre 2010 11:09

To evaluate the accuracy of repeat mediastinoscopy (reMS) in all its indications, and to analyse survival in the group of patients who underwent induction chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for pathologically proven stage III-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: From July 1992 to February 2009, 96 patients (87 men; median age: 61.3 years), underwent 101 reMSs (five patients required a second reMS) for the following

indications: restaging after induction therapy for pathologically proven N2 disease (84 cases), inadequate first mediastinoscopy (five), metachronous second primary (six) and recurrent lung cancer (six). Patients with N2-NSCLC, who had received induction therapy and had positive reMS, underwent definitive chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Patients in whom reMS was negative underwent thoracotomy for lung resection and systematic nodal dissection (SND). SND was considered the gold standard to compare the negative results of reMS. Pathologic findings were reviewed and staging values were calculated using the standard formulas. Follow-up data were completed in January 2010, and survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: In the group of reMS for restaging after induction therapy, the staging values were: sensitivity 0.74, specificity 1, positive predictive value 1, negative predictive value 0.79 and diagnostic accuracy 0.87. We also determined the diagnostic value of this technique according to the type of induction treatment. In terms of accuracy, no statistically significant differences were found. Median survival time in patients with true negative reMS was 51.5 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 0-112), and in the combined group of patients with positive and false-negative reMS, median survival time was 11 months (95% CI 7.6-14.1) (p=0.0001). In the group of miscellaneous indications, all staging values were 1.

Conclusion: ReMS is feasible in all the indications described. After induction therapy, it is a useful procedure to select patients for lung resection with high accuracy, independently of the induction treatment used or the intensity of the first mediastinoscopy. The persistence of lymph node involvement after induction therapy has a poor prognosis. Therefore, techniques providing cytohistological evidence of nodal downstaging are advisable to avoid unnecessary thoracotomies.

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Monoclonal antibodies against EGFR in non-small cell lung cancer. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 07 Décembre 2010 11:09

Blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by monoclonal antibodies is a strategy to improve outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Cetuximab, a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, has been studied in combination with different chemotherapy protocols in both phase II and phase III trials in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  • In the phase III FLEX trial, cetuximab added to cisplatin/vinorelbine resulted in an absolute overall survival benefit of 1.2 months compared to the same chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced EGFR-expressing NSCLC.
  • In the second phase III trial, cetuximab added to carboplatin plus paclitaxed failed to improve progression-free survival but suggested a survival benefit similar to that seen in the FLEX trial. However, the benefit in survival reached statistical significance only in the FLEX trial.

A meta-analysis that included patients from four randomized trials confirmed the efficacy of cetuximab when added to chemotherapy. Thus addition of cetuximab to platinum-based chemotherapy represents a new treatment option for patients with advanced NSCLC.

Matuzumab and panitumumab have also been evaluated in phase II trials. Necitumumab is currently evaluated in combination with chemotherapy in two randomized phase III trials.

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Long-Term Administration of Second-Line Chemotherapy with S-1 and Gemcitabine for Platinum-Resistant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase II Study. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 07 Décembre 2010 11:09

Standard second-line chemotherapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been established but have limited clinical relevance. S-1 is a recently developed agent with potential activity against NSCLC.

METHODS:: Patients with confirmed NSCLC recurrence after previous single- or two-regimen chemotherapy with platinum, performance status of 0 to 1, adequate organ functions, and measurable lesions were treated with S-1 (60 mg/m/d, twice a day) on days 1 to 14 and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m) on days 8 and 15, which were repeated every 3 weeks until tumor progression.

RESULTS:: Treatment was administered for a median of 4 courses (range, 1-13) over a median of 125-day period in 34 patients. The overall response rate was 23.5% (no complete response and eight partial response; 95% confidence interval: 9.1-38.0%). The median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.6 and 19.9 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 58.8 and 30.9%, respectively. Toxicity was mild during the entire treatment period, except for three grade 3 interstitial pneumonia.

CONCLUSION:: The primary end point was met with the relatively high overall response rate. Randomized phase III studies for elucidating survival outcome of the regimen are warranted.

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