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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

The Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Ultrasound-Assisted Transthoracic Biopsy of Mediastinal Masses Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 02 Décembre 2010 07:53

Ultrasound (US)-assisted transthoracic biopsy offers a less invasive alternative to surgical biopsy in the setting of mediastinal masses.
Objectives: The aim of this 1-year prospective study was to assess the diagnostic yield and safety of a novel single-session sequential approach of US-assisted transthoracic fine-needle aspirations (TTFNA) with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) followed by cutting needle biopsies (CNB) performed by physicians on patients with anterosuperior mediastinal masses.
Methods: US-assisted TTFNA with ROSE was performed on 45 consecutive patients (49.5 ± 27.7 years, 24 males), immediately followed by CNB where a provisional diagnosis of epithelial carcinoma or tuberculosis could not be established, provided a safety range could be assured.
Results: TTFNA alone was deemed adequate by means of ROSE in 27 (60%) patients. CNB could be performed in 17 of the remaining 18. The on-site diagnosis corresponded to the final diagnosis in 26/45 (57.8%). An accurate cytological diagnosis was made in 33 (73.3%), and was more likely to be diagnostic in epithelial carcinoma and tuberculosis (28/30) than all other pathologies (5/15, p < 0.001). CNB yielded a diagnosis in 15/17 (88.2%). Overall, 42/45 patients were diagnosed by the single-session approach (93.3%). The final diagnoses included 41 neoplasms, with small cell lung cancer (n = 13) the commonest diagnosis. We observed no pneumothorax or major haemorrhage.
Conclusions: A single-session sequential approach of US-assisted TTFNA with ROSE followed by CNB, where indicated, has a high diagnostic yield for anterosuperior mediastinal masses, is safe and offers an alternative to surgical biopsy.

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A Novel Approach to Prediction of Mild Obstructive Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Population-Based Sample: The Sleep Heart Health Study Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 02 Décembre 2010 07:53

This manuscript considers a data-mining approach for the prediction of mild obstructive sleep disordered breathing, defined as an elevated respiratory disturbance index (RDI), in 5,530 participants in a community-based study, the Sleep Heart Health Study.
The prediction algorithm was built using modern ensemble learning algorithms, boosting in specific, which allowed for assessing potential high-dimensional interactions between predictor variables or classifiers. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the data were split into training and validation sets for varying thresholds for predicting the probability of a high RDI (≥ 7 events per hour in the given results).
Based on a moderate classification threshold from the boosting algorithm, the estimated post-test odds of a high R...

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Aerosol Inhalation From Spacers and Valved Holding Chambers Requires Few Tidal Breaths for Children Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 02 Décembre 2010 07:53
CONCLUSION: For young children, tidal breaths through a spacer/VHC were much larger than expected. Two tidal breaths were adequate for small-volume VHCs and a 500-mL modified soft drink bottle, and 3 tidal breaths were adequate for the larger Volumatic VHC. (Source: PEDIATRICS)

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