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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
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Cost-Effectiveness of Thoracic Radiation Therapy for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Evidence From the Chest Radiotherapy Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Trial (CREST). Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 08 Janvier 2018 06:57
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Cost-Effectiveness of Thoracic Radiation Therapy for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Evidence From the Chest Radiotherapy Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Trial (CREST).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Jan 01;100(1):97-106

Authors: Patrice GI, Lester-Coll NH, Yu JB, Amdahl J, Delea TE, Patrice SJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: The Chest Radiotherapy Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Trial (CREST) showed that adding thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to the standard treatment (ST) paradigm of chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation improves overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding TRT to ST in ES-SCLC patients.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cost-utility analysis was performed comparing TRT plus ST versus ST alone. The base-case time horizon was 24 months, consistent with the maximum PFS reported in the CREST. Overall survival was partitioned into 2 health states: PFS and postprogression survival. The proportion of patients in each health state over time was estimated by fitting parametric probability distributions to the CREST survival data. Costs were from a US health care payer perspective, and utilities were derived from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) using a 3% discount rate. Sensitivity analyses addressed uncertainty in key variables.
RESULTS: In the base-case analysis, adding TRT to ST was both cost saving and more effective, thereby strongly dominating ST alone. At willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000/QALY, $100,000/QALY, and $200,000/QALY, TRT was preferred 68%, 81%, and 96% of the time, respectively. In the lifetime scenario analysis, the TRT ICER increased to $194,726/QALY.
CONCLUSIONS: By use of the actual follow-up interval reported in the CREST, adding TRT to ST strongly dominates a strategy of ST alone in ES-SCLC patients. Since the long-term survival benefit of TRT is small relative to ongoing costs of progressive metastatic disease, we estimate less favorable ICERs for TRT over a lifetime horizon.

PMID: 29029885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Substance deposition assessment in obstructed pulmonary system through numerical characterization of airflow and inhaled particles attributes. Imprimer Envoyer
Vendredi, 05 Janvier 2018 08:05
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Substance deposition assessment in obstructed pulmonary system through numerical characterization of airflow and inhaled particles attributes.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017 Dec 20;17(Suppl 3):173

Authors: Lalas A, Nousias S, Kikidis D, Lalos A, Arvanitis G, Sougles C, Moustakas K, Votis K, Verbanck S, Usmani O, Tzovaras D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are considered as the two most widespread obstructive lung diseases, whereas they affect more than 500 million people worldwide. Unfortunately, the requirement for detailed geometric models of the lungs in combination with the increased computational resources needed for the simulation of the breathing did not allow great progress to be made in the past for the better understanding of inflammatory diseases of the airways through detailed modelling approaches. In this context, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations accompanied by fluid particle tracing (FPT) analysis of the inhaled ambient particles are deemed critical for lung function assessment. Also they enable the understanding of particle depositions on the airways of patients, since these accumulations may affect or lead to inflammations. In this direction, the current study conducts an initial investigation for the better comprehension of particle deposition within the lungs. More specifically, accurate models of the airways obstructions that relate to pulmonary disease are developed and a thorough assessment of the airflow behavior together with identification of the effects of inhaled particle properties, such as size and density, is conducted. Our approach presents a first step towards an effective personalization of pulmonary treatment in regards to the geometric characteristics of the lungs and the in depth understanding of airflows within the airways.
METHODS: A geometry processing technique involving contraction algorithms is established and used to employ the different respiratory arrangements associated with lung related diseases that exhibit airways obstructions. Apart from the normal lung case, two categories of obstructed cases are examined, i.e. models with obstructions in both lungs and models with narrowings in the right lung only. Precise assumptions regarding airflow and deposition fraction (DF) over various sections of the lungs are drawn by simulating these distinct incidents through the finite volume method (FVM) and particularly the CFD and FPT algorithms. Moreover, a detailed parametric analysis clarifies the effects of the particles size and density in terms of regional deposition upon several parts of the pulmonary system. In this manner, the deposition pattern of various substances can be assessed.
RESULTS: For the specific case of the unobstructed lung model most particles are detected on the right lung (48.56% of total, when the air flowrate is 12.6 L/min), a fact that is also true when obstructions arise symmetrically in both lungs (51.45% of total, when the air flowrate is 6.06 L/min and obstructions occur after the second generation). In contrast, when narrowings are developed on the right lung only, most particles are pushed on the left section (68.22% of total, when the air flowrate is 11.2 L/min) indicating that inhaled medication is generally deposited away from the areas of inflammation. This observation is useful when designing medical treatment of lung diseases. Furthermore, particles with diameters from 1 μm to 10 μm are shown to be mainly deposited on the lower airways, whereas particles with diameters of 20 μm and 30 μm are mostly accumulated in the upper airways. As a result, the current analysis indicates increased DF levels in the upper airways when the particle diameter is enlarged. Additionally, when the particles density increases from 1000 Kg/m3 to 2000 Kg/m3, the DF is enhanced on every generation and for all cases investigated herein. The results obtained by our simulations provide an accurate and quantitative estimation of all important parameters involved in lung modeling.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of respiratory diseases with inhaled medical substances can be advanced by the clinical use of accurate CFD and FPT simulations and specifically by evaluating the deposition of inhaled particles in a regional oriented perspective in regards to different particle sizes and particle densities. Since a drug with specific characteristics (i.e. particle size and density) exhibits maximum deposition on particular lung areas, the current study provides initial indications to a qualified physician for proper selection of medication.

PMID: 29297393 [PubMed - in process]

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From COPD epidemiology to studies of pathophysiological disease mechanisms: challenges with regard to study design and recruitment process: Respiratory and Cardiovascular Effects in COPD (KOLIN). Imprimer Envoyer
Vendredi, 05 Janvier 2018 08:05
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From COPD epidemiology to studies of pathophysiological disease mechanisms: challenges with regard to study design and recruitment process: Respiratory and Cardiovascular Effects in COPD (KOLIN).

Eur Clin Respir J. 2017;4(1):1415095

Authors: Lindberg A, Linder R, Backman H, Eriksson Ström J, Frølich A, Nilsson U, Rönmark E, Johansson Strandkvist V, Behndig AF, Blomberg A

Abstract
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a largely underdiagnosed disease including several phenotypes. In this report, the design of a study intending to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism in COPD in relation to the specific phenotypes non-rapid and rapid decline in lung function is described together with the recruitment process of the study population derived from a population based study. Method: The OLIN COPD study includes a population-based COPD cohort and referents without COPD identified in 2002-04 (n = 1986), and thereafter followed annually since 2005. Lung function decline was estimated from baseline in 2002-2004 to 2010 (first recruitment phase) or to 2012/2013 (second recruitment phase). Individuals who met the predefined criteria for the following four groups were identified; group A) COPD grade 2-3 with rapid decline in FEV1 and group B) COPD grade 2-3 without rapid decline in FEV1 (≥60 and ≤30 ml/year, respectively), group C) ever-smokers, and group D) non-smokers with normal lung function. Groups A-C included ever-smokers with >10 pack years. The intention was to recruit 15 subjects in each of the groups A-D. Results: From the database groups A-D were identified; group A n = 37, group B n = 29, group C n = 41, and group D n = 55. Fifteen subjects were recruited from groups C and D, while this goal was not reached in the groups A (n = 12) and B (n = 10). The most common reasons for excluding individuals identified as A or B were comorbidities contraindicating bronchoscopy, or inflammatory diseases/immune suppressive medication expected to affect the outcome. Conclusion: The study is expected to generate important results regarding pathophysiological mechanisms associated with rate of decline in lung function among subjects with COPD and the in-detail described recruitment process, including reasons for non-participation, is a strength when interpreting the results in forthcoming studies.

PMID: 29296255 [PubMed]

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