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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
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Proteomic analysis of sputum reveals novel biomarkers for various presentations of asthma. Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 06 Août 2017 17:57
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Proteomic analysis of sputum reveals novel biomarkers for various presentations of asthma.

J Transl Med. 2017 Aug 04;15(1):171

Authors: Cao C, Li W, Hua W, Yan F, Zhang H, Huang H, Ying Y, Li N, Lan F, Wang S, Chen X, Li J, Liu J, Lai T, Bao Z, Cao Y, Zhao Y, Huang G, Huang L, Huang Y, Wu P, Peng C, Chen Z, Chung KF, Zhong N, Ying S, Shen H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is now recognized that asthma can present in different forms. Typically, asthma present with symptoms of wheeze, breathlessness and cough. Atypical forms of asthma such as cough variant asthma (CVA) or chest tightness variant asthma (CTVA) do not wheeze. We hypothesize that these different forms of asthma may have distinctive cellular and molecular features.
METHODS: 30 patients with typical or classical asthma (CA), 27 patients with CVA, 30 patients with CTVA, and 30 healthy control adults were enrolled in this prospective study. We measured serum IgE, lung function, sputum eosinophils, nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO). We performed proteomic analysis of induced-sputum supernatants by mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in atopy and FEV1 among patients with CA, CVA, and CTVA. Serum IgE, sputum eosinophil percentages, FeNO, anxiety and depression scores were significantly increased in the three presentations of asthmatic patients as compared with healthy controls but there was no difference between the asthmatic groups. Comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than a thousand proteins in the sputum from patients with CA, CVA, and CTVA, among which 23 secreted proteins were higher in patients than that in controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CA, CVA, or CTVA share common clinical characteristics of eosinophilic airway inflammation. And more importantly, their sputum samples were composed with common factors with minor distinctions. These findings support the concept that these three different presentations of asthma have similar pathogenetic mechanism in terms of an enhanced Th2 associated with eosinophilia. In addition, this study identified a pool of novel biomarkers for diagnosis of asthma and to label its subtypes. Trial registration http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR-OOC-15006221).

PMID: 28778200 [PubMed - in process]

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrotic Disease. Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 06 Août 2017 17:57
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrotic Disease.

Cell Stem Cell. 2017 Aug 03;21(2):166-177

Authors: El Agha E, Kramann R, Schneider RK, Li X, Seeger W, Humphreys BD, Bellusci S

Abstract
Fibrosis is associated with organ failure and high mortality and is commonly characterized by aberrant myofibroblast accumulation. Investigating the cellular origin of myofibroblasts in various diseases is thus a promising strategy for developing targeted anti-fibrotic treatments. Recent studies using genetic lineage tracing technology have implicated diverse organ-resident perivascular mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells and bone marrow-MSCs in myofibroblast generation during fibrosis development. In this Review, we give an overview of the emerging role of MSCs and MSC-like cells in myofibroblast-mediated fibrotic disease in the kidney, lung, heart, liver, skin, and bone marrow.

PMID: 28777943 [PubMed - in process]

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Contributions of the intestinal microbiome in lung immunity. Imprimer Envoyer
Dimanche, 06 Août 2017 17:56
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Contributions of the intestinal microbiome in lung immunity.

Eur J Immunol. 2017 Aug 04;:

Authors: McAleer JP, Kolls JK

Abstract
The intestine is a critical site of immune cell development that not only controls intestinal immunity but extra-intestinal immunity as well. Recent findings have highlighted important roles for gut microbiota in shaping lung inflammation. Here, we discuss interactions between the microbiota and immune system including T cells, protective effects of microbiota on lung infections, the role of diet in shaping the composition of gut microbiota and susceptibility to asthma, epidemiologic evidence implicating antibiotic use and microbiota in asthma and clinical trials investigating probiotics as potential treatments for atopy and asthma. The systemic effects of gut microbiota are partially attributed to their generating metabolites including short chain fatty acids, which can suppress lung inflammation through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, studying the interactions between microbiota and immune cells can lead to the identification of therapeutic targets for chronic lower respiratory diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28776643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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