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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

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Effect of smoking and comorbidities on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 29 Août 2017 07:18
Related Articles

Effect of smoking and comorbidities on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Respir Res. 2017 Aug 22;18(1):160

Authors: Kärkkäinen M, Kettunen HP, Nurmi H, Selander T, Purokivi M, Kaarteenaho R

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Certain comorbidities have been associated with reduced survival although some studies have indicated that current smokers have a longer survival than ex-smokers. Comorbidities in relation to smoking history have not been previously analyzed.
METHODS: Retrospective data was collected and patients were categorized according to gender and smoking habits. Comorbidities and medications were collected. Predictive values for mortality were identified by COX proportional hazard analyses.
RESULTS: We examined 45 non-smokers (53.3% female), 66 ex-smokers (9.1% female) and 17 current smokers (17.6% female) with IPF. Current smokers were younger at baseline (58.1 ± 8.74 years) compared to non-smokers (71.4 ± 8.74, p < 0.001) and ex-smokers (72.5 ±7.95, p <0.001). Median survival of non-smokers and current smokers was longer (55.0 and 52.0 months, respectively) than that of ex-smokers (36.0 months) (p=0.028 and 0.034, respectively). In age and severity adjusted analyses, smoking was not related to survival. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (72.7 %) were the most common comorbidities, current smokers had more chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer compared to ex-smokers (p<0.001). CVD, COPD and use of insulin were related to poorer survival in adjusted analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking seems to influence the course of disease in IPF since current smokers developed the disease at a younger age in comparison to non-smokers and ex-smokers. No significant differences in the major comorbidities were detected between IPF patients with different smoking histories. The mechanism through which smoking influences IPF progression requires further investigation.

PMID: 28830514 [PubMed - in process]

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Role of vitamin D in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Imprimer Envoyer
Mardi, 29 Août 2017 07:18
Related Articles

Role of vitamin D in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

World J Clin Pediatr. 2017 Aug 08;6(3):132-142

Authors: Moustaki M, Loukou I, Priftis KN, Douros K

Bronchiectasis is usually classified as cystic fibrosis (CF) related or CF unrelated (non-CF); the latter is not considered an orphan disease any more, even in developed countries. Irrespective of the underlying etiology, bronchiectasis is the result of interaction between host, pathogens, and environment. Vitamin D is known to be involved in a wide spectrum of significant immunomodulatory effects such as down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Respiratory epithelial cells constitutively express 1α-hydroxylase leading to the local transformation of the inactive 25(OH)-vitamin D to the active 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D. The latter through its autocrine and paracrine functions up-regulates vitamin D dependent genes with important consequences in the local immunity of lungs. Despite the scarcity of direct evidence on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency states in the development of bronchiectasis in either CF or non-CF patients, it is reasonable to postulate that vitamin D may play some role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases and especially bronchiectasis. The potential contribution of vitamin D deficiency in the process of bronchiectasis is of particular clinical importance, taking into consideration the increasing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide and the significant morbidity of bronchiectasis. Given the well-established association of vitamin D deficiency with increased inflammation, and the indicative evidence for harmful consequences in lungs, it is intriguing to speculate that the administration of vitamin D supplementation could be a reasonable and cost effective supplementary therapeutic approach for children with non-CF bronchiectasis. Regarding CF patients, maybe in the future as more data become available, we have to re-evaluate our policy on the most appropriate dosage scheme for vitamin D.

PMID: 28828295 [PubMed]

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Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 19 Août 2017 07:07

Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Invest Radiol. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Petroulia V, Funke M, Zumstein P, Berezowska S, Ebner L, Geiser T, Torbica N, Heverhagen J, Poellinger A

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lethal chronic lung disease with unclear pathogenesis. Radiological hallmark is the pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia accentuated in peripheral and basal areas with otherwise preserved lung structure. One hypothesis is that alveolar collapse and consequent induration lead to fibrotic transformation of lung tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate normal-appearing tissue during expiration for signs of collapsibility and differences from other diseases or controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed a total of 43 patients (15 IPFs, 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and 15 controls) with nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) in inspiration and expiration, performed for routine clinical workup. Densitometry of visually unaffected lung tissue was conducted in all lung lobes with a region of interest of 15-mm in diameter on soft tissue kernel reconstruction (slice thickness, 1 mm) during inspiration and expiration.
RESULTS: One-factor analysis of variance analysis yielded significant difference in attenuation changes between inspiration and expiration of unaffected lung parenchyma among all subject groups in all lung lobes. For IPF patients, the highest differences in densities were observed in the lower lobes, which is the predominantly affected site of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group, the density remained rather equal in the entire lung.
CONCLUSIONS: High CT attenuation changes between inspiration and expiration in IPF patients might suggest altered lung parenchyma in normal-appearing tissue on CT. Density changes during the respiratory cycle might be explained by alveolar collapse of radiologically unaffected lung tissue possibly preceding fibrosis. These results support the concept of alveolar collapse preceding lung fibrosis in IPF.

PMID: 28817393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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