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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



Why is the rate of pneumococcal pneumonia declining? Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 05 Avril 2018 06:54
imagePurpose of review As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10–15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. Recent findings Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc.) and of improved preventive measures, including vaccines, are some of possible explanations of the declining role of S. pneumoniae in the cause of pneumonia. Summary The 14-valent and the 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines were licensed in 1977 and 1983, respectively. The seven-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine, approved for routine use in children starting at 2 months of age, was highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children but also in adults because of the herd effect. In 2010, the 13-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine replaced seven-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine. With the use of conjugated vaccines, a decrease of the vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease for all age groups was observed. Both the direct effect of the vaccine and the so-called herd immunity are considered responsible for much of the decline.
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Why is the rate of pneumococcal pneumonia declining? Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 05 Avril 2018 06:54
imagePurpose of review As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10–15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. Recent findings Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc.) and of improved preventive measures, including vaccines, are some of possible explanations of the declining role of S. pneumoniae in the cause of pneumonia. Summary The 14-valent and the 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines were licensed in 1977 and 1983, respectively. The seven-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine, approved for routine use in children starting at 2 months of age, was highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children but also in adults because of the herd effect. In 2010, the 13-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine replaced seven-valent protein-conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccine. With the use of conjugated vaccines, a decrease of the vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease for all age groups was observed. Both the direct effect of the vaccine and the so-called herd immunity are considered responsible for much of the decline.
Lire la suite...
 
Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease Imprimer Envoyer
Jeudi, 05 Avril 2018 06:54
imagePurpose of review To highlight recent original research and specialty society guidelines regarding the diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Recent findings The prevalence of NTM pulmonary disease has risen in recent years. The prevalence of individual NTM species varies geographically, although Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) remain among the most commonly encountered in many regions. Diagnosis and treatment of NTM pulmonary disease can be complex but guideline-based recommendations have been published. However, adherence to guideline recommendations is poor. Drug susceptibility testing plays a role with important caveats for treatment. Alternative therapies are being explored with older antimycobacterial drugs like clofazimine, which has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability for treatment-refractory NTM infections, and a novel formulation of amikacin for inhalation which may be better tolerated than parenteral administration. Several studies have shown that patients will have recurrences as high as 48%, and that these are not solely relapses but many cases are reinfections with a new organism. United States and European research registries of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis are expected to provide needed data on clinical characteristics of patients at risk for NTM pulmonary disease. Summary The evidence base for optimal management of NTM pulmonary disease is expanding but notable gaps in the literature remain.
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