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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.



High-dose rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and SQ109 for treating tuberculosis: a multi-arm, multi-stage randomised controlled trial. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 21 Janvier 2017 05:33
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High-dose rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and SQ109 for treating tuberculosis: a multi-arm, multi-stage randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jan;17(1):39-49

Authors: Boeree MJ, Heinrich N, Aarnoutse R, Diacon AH, Dawson R, Rehal S, Kibiki GS, Churchyard G, Sanne I, Ntinginya NE, Minja LT, Hunt RD, Charalambous S, Hanekom M, Semvua HH, Mpagama SG, Manyama C, Mtafya B, Reither K, Wallis RS, Venter A, Narunsky K, Mekota A, Henne S, Colbers A, van Balen GP, Gillespie SH, Phillips PP, Hoelscher M, PanACEA consortium

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the world's leading infectious disease killer. We aimed to identify shorter, safer drug regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis.
METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, open-label trial with a multi-arm, multi-stage design. The trial was done in seven sites in South Africa and Tanzania, including hospitals, health centres, and clinical trial centres. Patients with newly diagnosed, rifampicin-sensitive, previously untreated pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:2 ratio to receive (all orally) either 35 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 15-20 mg/kg ethambutol, 20 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 400 mg moxifloxacin, 20 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 300 mg SQ109, 10 mg/kg rifampicin per day with 300 mg SQ109, or a daily standard control regimen (10 mg/kg rifampicin, 5 mg/kg isoniazid, 25 mg/kg pyrazinamide, and 15-20 mg/kg ethambutol). Experimental treatments were given with oral 5 mg/kg isoniazid and 25 mg/kg pyrazinamide per day for 12 weeks, followed by 14 weeks of 5 mg/kg isoniazid and 10 mg/kg rifampicin per day. Because of the orange discoloration of body fluids with higher doses of rifampicin it was not possible to mask patients and clinicians to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time to culture conversion in liquid media within 12 weeks. Patients without evidence of rifampicin resistance on phenotypic test who took at least one dose of study treatment and had one positive culture on liquid or solid media before or within the first 2 weeks of treatment were included in the primary analysis (modified intention to treat). Time-to-event data were analysed using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model and adjusted for minimisation variables. The proportional hazard assumption was tested using Schoelfeld residuals, with threshold p<0·05 for non-proportionality. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01785186).
FINDINGS: Between May 7, 2013, and March 25, 2014, we enrolled and randomly assigned 365 patients to different treatment arms (63 to rifampicin 35 mg/kg, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol; 59 to rifampicin 10 mg/kg, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, SQ109; 57 to rifampicin 20 mg/kg, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and SQ109; 63 to rifampicin 10 mg/kg, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin; and 123 to the control arm). Recruitment was stopped early in the arms containing SQ109 since prespecified efficacy thresholds were not met at the planned interim analysis. Time to stable culture conversion in liquid media was faster in the 35 mg/kg rifampicin group than in the control group (median 48 days vs 62 days, adjusted hazard ratio 1·78; 95% CI 1·22-2·58, p=0·003), but not in other experimental arms. There was no difference in any of the groups in time to culture conversion on solid media. 11 patients had treatment failure or recurrent disease during post-treatment follow-up: one in the 35 mg/kg rifampicin arm and none in the moxifloxacin arm. 45 (12%) of 365 patients reported grade 3-5 adverse events, with similar proportions in each arm.
INTERPRETATION: A dose of 35 mg/kg rifampicin was safe, reduced the time to culture conversion in liquid media, and could be a promising component of future, shorter regimens. Our adaptive trial design was successfully implemented in a multi-centre, high tuberculosis burden setting, and could speed regimen development at reduced cost.
FUNDING: The study was funded by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials partnership (EDCTP), the German Ministry for Education and Research (BmBF), and the Medical Research Council UK (MRC).

PMID: 28100438 [PubMed - in process]

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Burden of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Progression: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up Study. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 21 Janvier 2017 05:33
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Burden of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Progression: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0166462

Authors: Cottin V, Schmidt A, Catella L, Porte F, Fernandez-Montoya C, Le Lay K, Bénard S

Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with an unpredictable course. An observational study was set up using the French hospital discharge database to describe the reasons, outcomes and costs of hospitalisations related to this disease. Patients newly hospitalised for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ICD-10 code: J84.1) in 2008 were identified and followed for 5 years. As J84.1 includes other fibrotic pulmonary diseases, an algorithm excluding age<50 years and presence of a differential diagnosis in the following year was defined. Overall, 6,476 patients were identified; of whom 30% were admitted through the emergency unit and 12% died during their first hospitalisation. Most of patients were hospitalised at least once for one or several acute events (n = 5,635; 87.0% of patients), of whom 36.5% of patients with an acute respiratory worsening (in-hospital mortality of 17.0% and median cost of €3,224; interquartile range (IQR €889-6,092)), 43.7% of patients with a respiratory infection (in-hospital mortality of 29.5% and median cost of €5,432 (IQR, €3,620-9,115)) and 51.7% of patients with a cardiac event (in-hospital mortality of 35.7% and median cost of €4,584 (IQR, €2,803-6,399)); 30.2% of these events occurred during the first hospitalisation. Finally, the 3-year in-hospital mortality crude rate was 36.8%. This study is the first providing extensive data on hospitalisations in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, mostly idiopathic, in France, demonstrating high burden and hospital cost.

PMID: 28099456 [PubMed - in process]

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Is it possible to standardize the treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax? Part 2: surgical methods of treatment. Imprimer Envoyer
Samedi, 21 Janvier 2017 05:33
Related Articles

Is it possible to standardize the treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax? Part 2: surgical methods of treatment.

Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol. 2016 Dec;13(4):328-333

Authors: Rokicki W, Rokicki M, Wojtacha J, Filipowski M, Dżejlili A, Czyżewski D

Abstract
The present report provides a detailed description of the surgical methods for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) treatment, from open surgery (thoracotomy) to minimally invasive procedures (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - VATS). It describes the methods of preventing pneumothorax recurrence, including partial or complete resection of the parietal pleura and chemical pleurodesis with VATS. The pros and cons of each method are presented. The paper also discusses new techniques for diagnosing pneumothorax, such as fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence thoracoscopy (FEAT) and infrared thoracoscopy. Finally, the authors propose their own algorithm for the treatment of PSP.

PMID: 28096830 [PubMed - in process]

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