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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

Dans cette rubrique on vous propose une revue de la littérature à travers une sélection d'abstracts d'articles originaux.
On essaiera de vous tenir informé des dernières nouveautés de recherche en matière de Pneumologie. On ne vous fournit que le résumé de l'article et le lien correspondant, pour accéder à l'article en full text vous devez être inscrits à la revue correspondante.
Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste des revues de Pneumologie disponibles en libre accès.

Respiratory manifestations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 28 Novembre 2016 06:08

The respiratory manifestations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) have not been studied in detail.

In this retrospective multicentre study, EGPA was defined by asthma, eosinophilia and at least one new onset extra-bronchopulmonary organ manifestation of disease.

The study population included 157 patients (mean±sd age 49.4±14.1 years), with a mean±sd blood eosinophil count of 7.4±6.4x109 L–1 at diagnosis. There was a mean±sd of 11.8±18.2 years from the onset of asthma to the diagnosis of EGPA, of 1.4±8.4 years from the first onset of peripheral eosinophilia to the diagnosis of EGPA, and of 7.4±6.4 years from EGPA diagnosis to the final visit. Despite inhaled and oral corticosteroid treatment, the severity of asthma increased 3–6 months before the onset of the systemic manifestations. Asthma was severe in 57%, 48%, and 56% of patients at diagnosis, at 3 years, and at the final visit, respectively. Persistent airflow obstruction was present in 38%, 30%, and 46% at diagnosis, at 3 years, and at the final visit, respectively.

In EGPA, asthma is severe, antedates systemic manifestations by a mean of 12 years, and progresses to long-term persistent airflow obstruction despite corticosteroids in a large proportion of patients, which affects long-term management and morbidity.

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Severe asthma exists despite suppressed tissue inflammation: findings of the U-BIOPRED study Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 28 Novembre 2016 06:08

The U-BIOPRED study is a multicentre European study aimed at a better understanding of severe asthma. It included three steroid-treated adult asthma groups (severe nonsmokers (SAn group), severe current/ex-smokers (SAs/ex group) and those with mild–moderate disease (MMA group)) and healthy controls (HC group). The aim of this cross-sectional, bronchoscopy substudy was to compare bronchial immunopathology between these groups.

In 158 participants, bronchial biopsies and bronchial epithelial brushings were collected for immunopathologic and transcriptomic analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of glycol methacrylate resin-embedded biopsies showed there were more mast cells in submucosa of the HC group (33.6 mm–2) compared with both severe asthma groups (SAn: 17.4 mm–2, p<0.001; SAs/ex: 22.2 mm–2, p=0.01) and with the MMA group (21.2 mm–2, p=0.01). The number of CD4+ lymphocytes was decreased in the SAs/ex group (4.7 mm–2) compared with the SAn (11.6 mm–2, p=0.002), MMA (10.1 mm–2, p=0.008) and HC (10.6 mm–2, p<0.001) groups. No other differences were observed.

Affymetrix microarray analysis identified seven probe sets in the bronchial brushing samples that had a positive relationship with submucosal eosinophils. These mapped to COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), ADAM-7 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 7), SLCO1A2 (solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2), TMEFF2 (transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor like and two follistatin like domains 2) and TRPM-1 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1); the remaining two are unnamed.

We conclude that in nonsmoking and smoking patients on currently recommended therapy, severe asthma exists despite suppressed tissue inflammation within the proximal airway wall.

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First evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus performance in contact screening Imprimer Envoyer
Lundi, 28 Novembre 2016 06:08

Identifying latently infected individuals is crucial for the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated for the first time the performance of a new type of interferon- release assay, QuantiFERON-TB Plus (QFT-Plus), which includes an additional antigen tube (TB2), stimulating both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in contacts of TB patients.

Contacts were screened for latent TB infection by tuberculin skin test, QFT-Plus and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT).

In 119 TB contacts, the overall agreement between QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT was high, with a Cohen's of 0.8. Discordant results were found in 12 subjects with negative QFT-GIT and positive QFT-Plus results. In analyses of markers of TB exposure and test results, the average time spent with the index case was the strongest risk factor for positivity in each of these tests. The difference in interferon- production between the two antigen tubes (TB2–TB1) was used as an estimate of CD8+ stimulation provided by the TB2. TB2–TB1 values >0.6 IU·mL–1 were significantly associated with proximity to the index case and European origin.

QFT-Plus has a stronger association with surrogate measures of TB exposure than QFT-GIT in adults screened for latent TB infection. Interferon- response in the new antigen tube used an indirect estimate of specific CD8+ response correlates with increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, suggesting a possible role in identifying individuals with recent infection.

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